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Title: Week One: Sentence Patterns
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#1
Quote:Day 1
Pattern 1: S + V
Subject + verb.
Examples: He jumped. I shouted. They fought. Jane slept.
In certain contexts, a single word may communicate a complete thought. Example: Jump. In "Jump" the subject "you" is understood. But usually, a sentence needs at least two elements: a subject, which can be a noun or pronoun, and a predicate, which can be as simple as a verb.
Ex: David slept.
A sentence is a group of words expressing a complete thought. A sentence must contain at least a subject (although one may be implied) and a verb.

Sounds/Letters - Words - Phrases - Clauses - Sentences - Paragraphs
Syntax is the arrangement of words and phrases and clauses to create well-formed sentences.
Sounds/Letters form words.
Words form Phrases and Clauses.
Phrases and Clauses form Sentences.
Sentences form Paragraphs.
A  phrase is a unit of words that stand together as part of a clause or sentence. 
A clause is a unit of words containing a subject and predicate. In other words, a clause has a subject doing a verb or being something.
Examples: She laughed at her. He is tall. Because I could not stop for death,
A clause can be either independent or dependent. A dependent clause cannot stand by itself because it needs something else to complete the thought. An independent clause can stand on its own: it is a complete sentence.

Homework: Part One
A group of words is either a phrase or a ______.
A clause has a ______ doing a verb.
A clause can be either ______ or ______. A ______ clause cannot stand by itself because it needs something else to complete the thought. An ______ clause can stand on its own: it is a complete sentence.

In your own words:
What is a clause?
What are the two types of clauses?
What are the differences between the two types of clauses?

Three simple variations on S + V:

  • 1A
Compound Subject + Verb.
A compound subject consists of more than one noun, pronoun, or noun phrase joined by a conjunction. For now, let's just keep it to "noun and noun."
Mark and Craig slept.
Mary and Sally and Bob read.
He and she ate.
  • 1B
S + Compound Verb
A compound verb or predicate consists of two or more verbs or verb phrases. A compound predicate tells two or more things about the same subject without repeating the subject.
Helen runs and jumps.
Jon cried and whined.
Janet ate and drank and danced.

  • 1C
Compound S + Compound V
Combine a compound subject with a compound predicate and viola! Not much more needed to understand these variations because you already understand the elements.
This pattern shows two or more subjects doing two or more activities.
Jon and Helen run and jump.
Ben and Lisa walked and talked.

Homework Part Two:
Write an S + V patterned sentence.
Write a Compound S + V patterned sentence.
Write an S + Compound V patterned sentence.
Write a Compound S + Compound V patterned sentence.
And it's just that easy. Tomorrow, on to direct objects!
Promote what you love instead of bashing what you hate.
 
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#2
Quote:Day 2
Pattern 2: S + TV + DO

Subject + Transitive Verb + Direct Object

Ex: I kicked the ball.
He baked some cookies.
John stitched a quilt.
I made a mistake.

A Direct Object (DO) is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a transitive verb.
A transitive verb is an action verb, expressing a doable activity; it must have someone or something to receive the action of the verb.

EX: The batter hit the ball. Ball is the DO.
An intransitive verb is an action verb that does not need a DO to receive its action.

EX: John slept. They danced. She studied.
A DO usually follows the verb and can be determined by asking whom or what received the action of the verb.

Quote:
EX: The car hit him. Whom did the car hit? Him. (This is one way of determining if who or whom is needed)

The subject does the verb to the DO.

Quote:
EX: He carried the papers. He carried what? The papers. Papers is the DO.

A DO cannot be a prepositional phrase.

Quote:
EX: I sat in the chair. I walked to the park.

What you need to know:
The difference between a transitive and intransitive verb.
What a direct object is. (Three of the patterns this week have DO in them.)

Quote:
Review:

A clause is a group of words that includes a subject and its verb.
A clause can be distinguished from a phrase, which does not contain a subject and its verb (e.g., in the afternoon, drinking from a cup, running up the hill).
An independent clause can express a complete thought (and can be a stand-alone sentence). A dependent clause is usually a supporting part of a sentence: it cannot stand by itself as a meaningful proposition (idea).
Don’t think of a dependent clause as less than an independent clause. It is more. You make a dependent clause by adding a subordinating conjunction to an independent clause, not by taking away.
I can’t sleep. Independent clause.
When I can’t sleep, -dependent clause.

Quote:
Subordinating conjunctions: after, because, before, even if, once, since, unless, until, when, while, etc

For more information: http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/subordin...nction.htm

Quote:
Homework:

A Direct Object (DO) is a ______ or ______ that receives the action of a transitive verb or shows the result of the action.
A transitive verb is an ______ verb; it must have someone or something to receive the ______ of the verb.
An ______ verb is an action verb that does not need a DO to receive its action.
A DO usually follows the ______ and can be determined by asking whom or what received the action of the verb.
A DO cannot be a ______ phrase.
Write three S + TV + DO sentences. Please label subject, verb, and direct object.
Add one of the above subordinating conjunctions (and change the period to a comma) to the beginning of one of your independent clauses for no. 6 to make a dependent clause.
Promote what you love instead of bashing what you hate.
 
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#3
Quote:Day 3:
S + V + IO + DO

Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object

He baked her a cake.
She bought him a new car.
He told her the truth.

An indirect object (IO) is the noun or pronoun that receives the DO. An IO can be determined by asking whom or what received the DO.
EX: I gave her the book. I (sub) gave (verb) what? The book (DO). To whom? Her (IO)

Indirect objects are rare because there must be a direct object in the sentence for there to be an indirect object, even though the indirect object comes before the direct object in the sentence.

The DO receives the action of the verb; the IO receives the DO.
She gave Jack a bicycle. Subject: She. Verb: gave. She gave what? A bicycle (DO). Who received the bicycle? Jack (IO).
Indirect objects are usually found in sentences with verbs of giving or communicating. Examples: bring, build, give, offer, sent, show, take, tell.
The indirect object is used right before a direct object and does not follow a preposition (to, for, in, under, etc.). If a preposition is used, then the noun or pronoun becomes the object of the preposition.

Emma gave him the book. S + V + IO + DO
Emma gave the book to him. S + V + DO + Preposition + Object of the Preposition.

Clause Review:

A clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition (thought). A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate, the latter typically a verb phrase, a verb with any objects and other modifiers. However, the subject is sometimes not said or explicit.

A simple sentence usually consists of a single finite clause with a finite verb that is independent. More complex sentences may contain multiple clauses. Main clauses (independent clauses) are those that can stand alone as a sentence. Subordinate clauses (dependent clauses) are those that would be awkward or incomplete if they stood alone. -Wikipedia

Homework:

An indirect object is the ______ or ______ that receives the ______. An IO can be determined by asking whom or what received the ______.
Indirect objects are much more rare than ______ because if there is an Indirect Object, then there must be a ______ in the sentence. But Remember, the indirect object comes before the ______ in the sentence.
The ______ receives the action of the verb; the indirect object receives the _____.
______ are usually found in sentences with verbs of giving or communicating.
The indirect object is used right before a ______ and does not follow a preposition (to, for, in, under, etc.). If a preposition is used, then the word becomes the ______ of the preposition.
Write three S + V + IO + DO patterned sentences. (Please use forms of these verbs - bring, give, offer, send, show, take, tell.)
Rewrite your S + V + IO + DO patterned sentences with prepositional phrases instead of indirect objects.
Example: She gave Jack the car. She gave the car to Jack.


Identify the clauses as D (dependent) or I (Independent):

Jim studied.
Consequently, he passed his exam.
Because I forgot her birthday.
If my neighbor doesn’t pay his rent.
Although many tourists travel long distances and enjoy the mild winters in southern California.
For all it brightens and uplifts, love casts a long shadow.
 
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#4
Quote:Day 4
S + V + DO + OC

Subject + Verb + Direct Object + Object Complement

We painted the town red.
They elected him President.
I call my dog Sparta!
The rescuers found the old building empty.
The manager kept the clerks busy.

An object complement (OC) is a noun, pronoun, or adjective which follows a direct object and renames it, modifies it, or tells what the direct object has become.
Adjectives are words that modify nouns. Examples: yellow cab, a large glass, a pale face, a rusty nail, the old documents, an essential matter, the right number.
Object complements are most often used with verbs of creating, nominating, perceiving, or judging, such as make, name, elect, paint, call, appoint, etc.
Don’t confuse object complements with direct objects or indirect objects.
When the word following the direct object tells what the direct object is or has become, it is the object complement.

More examples:

I found the guard sleeping.
They named their son Christopher.
The king named his youngest son his successor. ( An object complement can be a phrase)
My reply made my father angry.
The judge found the accused guilty.
Shawn named John the new manager.

Homework:

An object complement (OC) is a noun, pronoun, or ______ which follows a direct object and renames it, modifies it, or tells what the direct object has become.
Object complements are most often used with ______ of creating, nominating, perceiving, or judging such as make, name, elect, paint, call, appoint, etc.
When the word following the ______ tells what the ______ has become, it is the object complement. Find the ______. Is there a word after it that renames it or states what it has become? That's your OC.
An object complement (OC) is a noun, pronoun, or adjective which follows a direct object and ______ it, ______ it, or tells what the direct object has ______.
In your own words compare and contrast OC, IO, and DO.
Write three Subject + Verb + DO + OC patterned sentences. (use forms of the verbs make, name, elect, paint, call, appoint)

Identify the clause as either I (independent) or D (dependent):

When I’m finished reading
We’re planning a party
Mom found it in the drawer
Unless it comes today
And a good time was had by all.

Extra credit: Write a Subject + Verb + DO + OC patterned sentence with a pronoun in the OC slot.
For all it brightens and uplifts, love casts a long shadow.
 
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#5
Quote:Day 5
S + LV + SC

Subject + Linking Verb + Subject Complement

Susan is a gifted athlete.
John’s face turned red.
Joan felt sick.

A subject complement is the adjective, noun, or pronoun that follows a linking verb.
The simplest definition of an adjective is a word that describes or clarifies a noun. Adjectives describe nouns by giving some information about their size, shape, age, color, origin or material.
Most adjectives do NOT end in –ly, but some do. Examplen: Elderly, Friendly, Lovely, Lonely, Silly, Ugly, Costly, Curly, Deadly, and many more. If the word can go in front of a noun and modifies it, it is an adjective. Examples: The tall man. The crazy cat. The good woman.
A linking verb (LV) expresses a state of being; it is any form of the verb to be, become, or seem.
A linking verb links the subject to the complement.
Common verbs that can exist as either action verbs or linking verbs include: Grow, Look, Prove, Remain, Smell, Sound, Taste, Turn, Stay, Get, Appear, Feel
If you can substitute the word "is" or "are" for the verb –and the sentence still makes sense - it is almost always a linking verb.
Do not confuse direct objects with subject complements. Determine the verb, and that will tell you if it is a DO or a SC. Direct objects need transitive (action) verbs; subject complements need linking verbs.
EX: Howard felt the tomato. Here felt is an action word so tomato is a DO. Susan felt well. Felt is a linking verb here so well is a SC. Susan is well. But not “Howard is the tomato.”
A subject complement gives us more information about the subject. The SC either renames or describes the subject. A SC can 'modify' the subject in much the same way an adjective modifies a noun.
In a sentence with a LV and a SC, the subject isn’t doing anything; it is being something. If the subject were doing something, it would need an action verb. Not a verb of being.

Subject Complement examples:

It was I.
Ben is a policeman.
It will be fine.
Emma was a ghost.
She was lovely.
He was lonely.

Review:

A clause is a group of words that contain a subject its finite verb. Every complete sentence is made up of at least one clause.
An independent clause (or main clause) makes sense by itself. It expresses a complete thought.
A dependent clause (or subordinate clause) does not make sense by itself. It does not express a complete thought.
A dependent clause usually begins with a subordinating conjunction(after, although, before, because, until, etc), a relative pronoun ( who, whom, which, whoever, whomever, whichever, and that), or some other word that causes it to become dependent. A dependent clause will make sense only when attached to an independent clause.

Homework:

A Subject Complement is an ______, noun, or pronoun that follows a ______ verb.
A linking verb (LV) expresses a state of ______; it is any form of the verb ______ ______, become, or seem.
A linking verb links the ______ to the ______.
Some verbs can be linking or ______ verbs: appear, grow, look, feel, prove, remain, smell, etc. If you can substitute the word "is" or "are" for a verb –and the sentence still makes sense - it is almost always a linking verb.
Do not confuse direct objects with subject complements. Determine the ______ and that will tell you if it is a DO or a SC.
A DO needs a ______ verb; a SC needs a _______ verb.
A SC gives us more information about the ______. The SC either ______ or describes the ______.
Write three S + LV + SC sentences.

Clauses: Independent or Dependent?

Four eagles soared over the river
After it finished raining
Which many of us enjoy
When radio shows were popular
Because there were so many possibilities
For all it brightens and uplifts, love casts a long shadow.
 
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